Meaning of backwardness:
A state of being below the normally accepted level in learning of things is called backwardness. It is not abnormal which implies the worst level. On the other hand, it is a retrograde measure from the marked level of learning. Such backwardness in a child in most of the contexts make the child feel secluded. Whatever may be the reason for this, the teacher at school as well as the parents at home are expected to know much about children to pay more attention on the issues with the children.
Causes for backwardness:
The reason for the backwardness with a child may be either within the individual or outside him in the environment. The entire cause can not be attributed exclusively to heredity factor or to environmental factor. They are indeed interactive with mutual effect in the following cases.
i) Subnormal physical conditions:
Some children are born with biologically inherited weak body lacking normal conditions in sensory organs. Bart's research work says that almost 79% of the backwardness is due to such physiological gone back conditions.
ii) Physical defects and diseases:
The defects in speech, hearing, vision, left handedness, etc are some bodily defects due to improper functioning of the sense organs. Along with any one or two of the before said defects, problems like tonsils, malnutrition, migraine joining together may affect much. The child suffers a subnormal scholastic attainment in school and in study at home. Such physical defects may in some cases be due to a low measure of innate capacity.
iii) Poverty and economic condition:
Poverty in children is another factor which impairs the health of the children and limits the general knowledge. It narrows the mental range of reach to the subject. This is prevalent mostly with children dwelling in slum area. There are cases from other area also. Children belonging to crowded family with limited conditions of economic facilities and amenities also liable for backwardness in concentrating on their studies.
iv) Emotional and moral conditions:
Emotional and moral conditions of the home may be accounted as another factor for backwardness. The daily life at home is dependent of parental sympathy, adjustments, and flexible guidelines in family affairs. If the children lack at any level in these matters, they feel thrown in insecurity along with frequent quarrels.
v) Harsh attitude and dominance by parents:
Harsh attitude and over dominance by the parents to the children result in neurotic problems which affect normal learning and confidence in attaining standard.
vi) Influence of neighborhood:
The influence of neighborhood is another factor which contributes to the problem of subnormal scholastic attainments. The unpleasing conditions of the quarters and streets may nit be encouraging the children to have good friends to support in his studies. Bad friends in gang are also responsible for turning delinquents in large number.
vii) Specific factors:
Backwardness in specific abilities such as reading, writing and arithmetic are also to be added as factors for general backwardness. Since the total outcome is dependent of such factors specifically, the duty of the teachers is to detect and help them in time properly by compensating with some other enlightening talents to keep the balance at equilibrium.
The teachers at school and the parents at home should play their effective role in discovering the backwardness and giving remedies. The tips for the same follows:
i) Diagnostic tests ii) Standard tests of sensory perfections iii) Assessing emotional characters and temperaments iv) Scholastic tests in school subjects v) Continuous observation
After discovering the defects, proper medical treatment or friendly counseling by experts may be given. Home conditions and school conditions may be modified. Alternative curriculum and modified method of teaching may be suggested. Specially trained teachers in children education should handle backward children. Wrong parental care and over dominance at home should be totally stopped. Specific care should be taken for specific difficulties whether personal or academic in nature.